Chicago Police DepartmentSpecial Order S05-16
Radiation Detectors
Issue Date:01 February 2019Effective Date:01 February 2019
Rescinds:D11-09
Index Category:Extraordinary Responses
I.Purpose
This directive:
  • A.outlines policy relative to the use of radiation detectors.
  • B.outlines procedures for radiological alarm adjudication .
  • C.continues the use of the Illinois Emergency Management Agency's (IEMA) Preventative Radiological Nuclear Detection (PRND) Initial Incident Report.
II.Legal Authority
  • A.20 ILCS 3310/1, et seq., the "Nuclear Safety Law of 2004."
  • B.420 ILCS 40/1, et seq., the "Illinois Radiation Protection Act of 1990."
  • C.430 ILCS 30/1, et seq., the "Illinois Hazardous Materials Transportation Act."
  • D.625 ILCS 5/18b-100, et seq., "The Illinois Motor Carrier Safety Law."
  • E.Title 18, United States Code, Section 831: "Prohibited Transactions involving Nuclear Materials."
III.General Information
  • A.Radiation detectors are designed to detect, search, and locate gamma-emitting radioactive sources. It is designed for use in any area where radiation dose and dose rate are required to be measured. This device detects and locates radiation sources in both indoor and outdoor environments.
  • B.Alarms may be triggered by many legitimate sources that are not life threatening such as:
    • 1.legitimate radioactive materials or sources being transported legally in approved and properly prepared packaging.
    • 2.patients that have undergone recent medical treatments, including certain types of radiation therapy or nuclear medicine.
    • 3.items in commerce that contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (e.g., radium in pipe scale, granite rock, and certain fertilizers).
    • 4.survey equipment utilized at construction sites.
    • 5.organizations and individuals that are licensed by the state and/or federal government to possess legitimate radioactive sources.
  • C.Every day, people are exposed to radiation from naturally occurring and man-made sources. These levels of radiation are considered background levels of radiation and should not alarm first responders when detected by a meter. The normal background radiation rate for the Chicago area is 0.01–0.04 milli-roentgen per hour (10–40 micro-roentgen per hour). The average annual dose of radiation people receive from naturally occurring and man-made sources is approximately 360 milli-roentgen per year, or about one milli-roentgen per day.
  • D.The low-rate alarm for radiation detectors is set at 50 micro-roentgen per hour and the high-rate alarm is set at 2 milli-roentgen per hour.
IV.Policy
  • A.Sworn members will not unreasonably endanger themselves or another to conform to the procedures of this directive.
  • B.Multiple agencies that operate within the City of Chicago are equipped with radiation detectors including the Chicago Fire Department, Illinois State Police, Cook County Sheriff's Office, and other various state and federal agencies. Even though all Department members may not be equipped with radiation detectors, members are required to follow the provisions set forth in this directive when responding to an incident involving radiation detectors.
  • C.If a radiological incident occurs within the City of Chicago involving an active human-caused hazard or an active criminal threat, the Chicago Police Department will be the City department with full threat mitigation and investigative authority until relieved by the appropriate state or federal agency.
  • D.No member of the Chicago Police Department (CPD) will operate radiation detectors without first successfully completing the authorized training. All training will be documented in the training records in the CLEAR APPLICATIONS system.
  • E.Department members should maintain heightened situational awareness and verify an alarm reading with a second or third radiation detector when the cause of the alarm is suspected of being a criminal incident.
  • F.Responding members should attempt to identify a legitimate source for the alarm before initiating a criminal investigation.
  • G.Department members will base investigatory stops, traffic stops, arrests, searches of personal or real property, and seizures on reasonable articulable suspicion or probable cause as required by the Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution, the Illinois Constitution, Municipal Code of Chicago, applicable statues, or as otherwise permitted under current law.
  • H.Department members must be able to articulate reasonable facts, circumstances, and conclusions that support probable cause or reasonable articulable suspicion for an investigatory stop, a traffic stop, arrest, search of personal or real property, and seizure.
  • I.Department members are instructed that:
    • 1.an alert from a radiation detector alone is not indicative of criminal activity; members will not take enforcement action based solely upon that alert.
    • 2.vehicle stops based upon an alert from these devices may be made only when the member has probable cause or reasonable articulable suspicion to believe that the individual is committing, is about to commit, or has committed a criminal offense.
    • 3.an alert, standing alone, will not provide an officer sufficient basis to initiate investigatory stops, vehicle stops, arrests, searches of personal or real property, or seizures. The totality of the circumstance must be taken into account when conducting a radiation detector alarm investigation.
  • J.As soon as it becomes apparent, any conflict of opinion between the ranking on-site CPD supervisor and the ranking on-site CFD supervisor will be addressed through respective chains of command for resolution.
V.Responsibilities
  • A.The program manager for this program is the Deputy Chief, Special Functions Division. The program manager will:
    • 1.liaison with the Illinois Law Enforcement Alarm System (ILEAS) and the Chicago Fire Department (CFD), as necessary.
    • 2.identify which Department units are to receive radiation detectors and the number and type of detectors that will be provided to the selected units.
    • 3.determine training requirements for the operation of radiation detectors and liaison with the Education and Training Division for training implementation. Furthermore, all personnel assigned or detailed to the Special Functions Division or designated districts/units within the Bureau of Patrol will be required to complete the online awareness training course entitled "AWR-140" and all other required training, as determined by the program manager, before operating any radiation detectors.
      NOTE:
      Upon program expansion, all personnel who are transferred or detailed to a designated district operating radiation detectors are required to complete the "AWR-140" training course within 90 days of their assignment or detail.
    • 4.prepare a semi-annual report (January and July) of the devices and submit this report to the Department’s Uniform and Personal Equipment Policy Committee Chairperson.
    NOTE:
    Any conflict resolution or modifications to the procedures, storage, and training for the program will determined by the Deputy Chief, Special Functions Division.
  • B.The Equipment and Supply Section will be responsible for the distribution and replacement of the batteries to power the device as well as handle the inventory and distribution of the radiation detectors.
  • C.Commanding officers of selected units will establish the manner in which the radiation detectors are deployed.
VI.Procedures
  • A.At the beginning of their tours of duty, Department members in possession of a radiation detector will ensure the device is working correctly, sufficiently charged, and affixed properly. Furthermore, Department members will note the accumulated background dose on the detector.
    NOTE:
    Department members will ensure the detectors are zeroed at three month intervals to prevent false alarms.
  • B.Department members will affix the radiation detectors at least six inches away from any radio-emitting source (e.g., cell phones and radios) to avoid any false-positive readings.
  • C.When the radiation detector produces a warning signal, the Department member will determine what radiation level the device is detecting.
  • D.When the radiation detector displays a radiation rate of 2 milli-roentgen per hour or higher, the Department member will:
    • 1.when possible, immediately move to an area of less than 2 milli-roentgen per hour,
    • 2.verify the elevated radiation level with a second or third detector,
    • 3.attempt to identify the location and cause of the alarm,
    • 4.when possible, monitor the movements of any human threat to assist the response of the Bomb Squad and the SWAT team if contact with the human source has not been made,
    • 5.attempt to safely isolate the area and create an inner perimeter in an area less than 2 milli-roetengen per hour, and
    • 6.consider the confirmed elevated radiation level a hazardous material incident and follow the procedures delineated in Item VI-F through VI-K of this directive and the Department directive entitled "Hazardous Material (HAZ-MAT) Incidents."
  • E.If the radiation detector display shows an alarm for an elevated reading of radiation during primary screening , the Department member will:
    • 1.verify the elevated radiation level with a second or third detector;
    • 2.attempt to identify the source location and cause of the alarm, such as a person, vehicle, or object. Department members will continue to investigate the cause of the alarm if the source is not immediately located or is unknown.
      NOTE:
      When the source of an alarm involves an item of concern or a suspect package , Department members will immediately follow the procedures delineated in Item VI-F of this directive and the Department directives entitled "Bomb Incidents" and "Hazardous Materials (HAZ-MAT) Incidents."
    • 3.if available, request for an additional reading from an enhanced radiation detector.
      NOTE:
      When necessary and possible, an additional reading from an enhanced radiation detector may be conducted covertly (e.g., active criminal investigations or threat interdictions) as circumstances dictate.
    • 4.attempt to establish a consensual citizen encounter if the source involves a person, if needed and safely able to do so;
    • 5.if further investigation is needed, attempt to establish reasonable articulable suspicion based on the totality of the circumstance or probable cause to initiate an investigation;
      NOTE:
      A reading of 2 milli-roentgen per hour or higher establishes reasonable articulable suspicion for further investigation.
    • 6.once reasonable articulable suspicion or probable cause is established, visually inspect and interview all persons associated with the radioactive material;
    • 7.question the individual(s) about the possible sources for the radiation alarm.
  • F.If the source is undetermined, suspected of a possible threat/criminal activity, not visible (e.g., the reading is coming from a package), or suspected of a possible regulatory violation, members will:
    • 1.notify their immediate supervisor.
    • 2.attempt to safely isolate and secure the area and make an effort to increase the distance between the source of radiation while being cognizant of the safety of crowds and critical infrastructure.
    • 3.notify the Office of Emergency Management and Communications (OEMC) and request the following for the implementation of secondary screening procedures:
      • a.the Bomb Squad,
      • b.the SWAT team/SWAT WMD personnel, and
      • c.the Chicago Fire Department Haz-Mat unit.
  • G.OEMC will coordinate the response for further investigation and notify:
    • 1.the Crime Prevention and Information Center (CPIC),
    • 2.the Deputy Chief, Special Functions Division,
    • 3.CFD Haz-Mat duty officer,
    • 4.Cook County Sheriff's Police (CCSP) Emergency—911 Communications Center,
    • 5.IEMA, and
    • 6.the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).
  • H.CPIC will:
    • 1.use the Facilities Information Management System (FIMS) to determine if an area of concern has high amounts of radiation due to noncriminal occurrences,
    • 2.notify the Illinois State Police (ISP) State Terrorism Intelligence Center (STIC), and
    • 3.follow any applicable procedures delineated in the Department directive entitled "Crime Prevention and Information Center (CPIC)."
  • I.When secondary screening is determined necessary for radioisotope identification, the ranking on-scene Department member will coordinate with the Bomb Squad and/or SWAT WMD personnel for the implementation of secondary screening procedures.
    NOTE:
    The implementation of secondary screening procedures may also be coordinated with the CFD Haz-Mat unit, as determined necessary by on-scene Department members, and any additional on-scene law enforcement agencies.
  • J.If secondary screening procedures are implemented and/or the incident is determined to be a hazardous material incident, criminal in nature, and/or exposure to a member occurs, Department members will:
    • 1.follow the procedures delineated in the Department directive entitled "Hazardous Material (HAZ-MAT) Incidents" and any other applicable procedures for the specific incident. Radiation dose limits, as established by the Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program, will determine emergency actions at radiation incidents as follows:
      • a.0 to 5 roentgen (R)—no restrictions on activities.
      • b.5R to 10R—civilians should be evacuated and activities should be limited to search and rescue.
      • c.10R to 25R—activities should be limited to search and rescue only.
      • d.25R to 100R—entry is restrictive.
    • 2.if the threat involves a person and/or a vehicle and reasonable articulable suspicion or probable cause is established, safely secure the involved individual(s) and/or vehicle(s) for the designated agency responsible for further investigation.
      NOTE:
      The FBI will have the overall investigative authority for radiological incidents involving criminal activity and IEMA will have investigative authority for radiological incidents involving regulatory violations.
    • 3.complete the appropriate case report.
    NOTE:
    CFD has the responsibility for decontamination operations and procedures if necessary. The ranking on-site CFD supervisor will determine if Department members have been exposed to a level of radiation that requires exposure treatment.
  • K.Department members will release the person(s) or occupied vehicle(s) associated with the radioactive source and document the incident on an Investigatory Stop Report (CPD-11.910) and a Preventative Radiological Nuclear Detection (PRND) Initial Incident Report, if the radioactive source identified is consistent with:
    • 1.legitimate radioactive materials or sources being transported legally in approved and properly prepared packaging,
    • 2.patients that have undergone recent medical treatments including certain types of radiation therapy, nuclear medication, or PET scans,
    • 3.items in commerce that contain naturally occurring radioactive materials, including radium in pipe scale, granite rock, and certain fertilizers,
    • 4.survey equipment utilized at construction sites,
    • 5.detector malfunction or operator error, or
    • 6.organizations and individuals that are licensed by the state and/or federal government to possess legitimate radioactive sources.
    NOTE:
    Department members will complete a PRND Initial Incident Report and notify CPIC of elevated readings that resulted in any further investigation or actions by Department members beyond the preliminary investigation. The PRND Initial Incident Report is used by IEMA and the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office to properly document elevated radioactive activity and track adjudicated alarms.
VII.Reporting Procedures for Damaged/Malfunctioning, Lost, or Stolen Radiation Detectors
Appropriate supervisory personnel will:
  • A.ensure Department members use the detectors as prescribed and take immediate appropriate corrective or disciplinary action if a member is observed or reported to be improperly handling, operating, or in any way damaging a Department radiation detector.
  • B.conduct an investigation when a radiation detector is:
    • 1.damaged/malfunctioning, and:
      • a.ensure the appropriate reports are prepared, if applicable,
      • b.initiate a Complaint Register (CR) investigation if the damages were caused by a member's neglect or improper conduct,
      • c.submit a To-From-Subject Report detailing the nature and cause of the damage/malfunction, referencing the CR number if applicable, through the appropriate channels, and
      • d.submit copies of all reports through their chain of command to the:
        • (1)Deputy Chief, Special Functions Division.
        • (2)supervisor of police inventory, Equipment and Supply Section.
    • 2.lost or stolen, and ensure that:
      • a.the appropriate case report is prepared and, if appropriate, initiate a Complaint Register (CR) investigation. Copies of all reports will be sent through the channels to the:
        • (1)Deputy Chief, Special Functions Division.
        • (2)supervisor of police inventory, Equipment and Supply Section.
      • b.an Administrative Message Center (AMC) message is sent to all districts and units.
  • C.When a damaged/malfunctioning, lost, or stolen radiation detector was acquired through the CFD, the Equipment and Supply Section will notify the CFD's Bureau of Logistics.
(Items indicated by italic/double underline were added or revised)
Authenticated by: KC
Eddie T. Johnson
Superintendent of Police
15-146 RCL
GLOSSARY TERMS:
1. -
The process of identifying, with reasonable certainty, the type or nature of material or device that set off an alarm and assessing the potential threat that the material or device might pose with corresponding implications for the need to take further actions. Adjudication can occur at any phase in the alarm response process and should be performed at the lowest possible organization level.
2. -
Reasonable Articulable Suspicion is an objective legal standard that is less than probable cause but more substantial than a hunch or general suspicion. Reasonable Articulable Suspicion depends on the totality of the circumstances which the sworn member observes and the reasonable inferences that are drawn based on the sworn member's training and experience. Reasonable Articulable Suspicion can result from a combination of particular facts, which may appear innocuous in and of themselves, but taken together amount to reasonable suspicion. Reasonable Articulable Suspicion should be founded on specific and objective facts or observations about how a suspect behaves, what the subject is seen or heard doing, and the circumstances or situation in regard to the suspect that is either witnessed or known by the officer. Accordingly, Reasonable Articulable Suspicion must be described with reference to facts or observations about a particular suspect's actions or the particular circumstances that an officer encounters. The physical characteristics of a suspect are never, by themselves, sufficient. Instead, those characteristics must be combined with other factors, including a specific, non-general description matching the suspect or the observed behaviors of the suspect.
  • A.For Investigatory Stops, a sworn member must possess specific and articulable facts which, combined with rational inferences from these facts, reasonably warrant a belief that the suspect is committing, is about to commit, or has committed a criminal offense.
  • B.For a Protective Pat Down, a sworn member must possess specific and articulable facts, combined with rational inferences from these facts, that the suspect is armed and dangerous or reasonably suspects that the person presents a danger of attack to the sworn member or others in the area.
    NOTE:
    An Investigatory Stop and a Protective Pat Down are two distinct actions—both require independent, Reasonable Articulable Suspicion (i.e., to stop a person there must be reasonable suspicion of criminal activity, and to stop a person and perform a Protective Pat Down of the person, there must be reasonable suspicion of criminal activity and reasonable suspicion that the person is armed and dangerous or presents a danger of attack).
3. -
Probable cause exists where the police have knowledge of facts that would lead a reasonable
person to believe that a crime has occurred and that the subject has committed it. This differs
from Reasonable Articulable Suspicion in that the facts supporting RAS do not need to meet
probable cause requirements, but they must justify more than a mere hunch. The facts should
not be viewed with analytical hindsight but instead should be considered from the perspective
of a reasonable officer at the time that situation confronted him or her.
4. -
The initial point of radiation detection and includes the first contact with a conveyance, individual, or shipment.
5. -

A package identified as potentially containing explosives, an improvised explosive device (IED), or other hazardous materials that requires bomb technician skills and equipment to investigate. Positive and articulable intelligence that will upgrade an unattended package to a suspect package would be an associated threat to the area that the package was found, history of associated threats, unusual markings, wires or lights attached, leakage of any liquid material, noise emanating from the package or unusual odor, etc.
6. -
Screening conducted in investigative manner where the source is identified and analyzed utilizing radioisotope identification detection equipment and/or other search techniques. This screening may include overt investigative methods, covert investigative methods, and/or a combination of both.