Chicago Police DepartmentGeneral Order G03-03-01
Emergency Vehicle Operations – Pursuits
Issue Date:28 March 2016Effective Date:28 March 2016
Rescinds:1 June 2003 Version
Index Category:Field Operations
I.Purpose
This directive:
  • A.establishes procedures, responsibilities, and restrictions for all sworn Department personnel who become involved in motor vehicle pursuits.
  • B.continues the use of the:
    • 1.Traffic Pursuit Report (CPD-22.958 [Rev. 4/03]).
    • 2.Traffic Pursuit Supplemental Report (CPD-22.959 [Rev. 10/08]).
    • 3.Pursuit Tracking Number.
    • 4.City of Chicago Office of Emergency Management and Communications Privileged and Confidential Media/Data Request (FORM: OEMC-109) available on the Department Directives System.
  • C.introduces the use of Department form Digitally Recorded Data Viewing/Hold/Duplication Request In-Car Video Systems Chicago Police Department (CPD-65.224).
II.Policy
  • A.The initiation, continuation, and supervisory authorization of each motor vehicle pursuit must conform to the following BALANCING TEST:
    The necessity to immediately apprehend the fleeing suspect outweighs the level of inherent danger created by a motor vehicle pursuit.
  • B.When applying the balancing test, members will:
    • 1.make a determination whether the:
      • a.speeds involved and/or the maneuvering practices engaged in permit the Department vehicle operator complete control of the Department vehicle and do not create unwarranted danger to himself or others;
      • b.volume of pedestrian and vehicular traffic reasonably permits initiating or continuing the pursuit; and
      • c.weather and road conditions reasonably permit initiating or continuing the pursuit.
    • 2.consider not initiating or terminating an active motor vehicle pursuit whenever the suspect's identity has been clearly established to the point that later apprehension can be accomplished without jeopardizing the life or safety of another individual.
    • 3.consider terminating a pursuit whenever a pursued vehicle or pursuing Department vehicle is involved in any property damage traffic crash.
    • 4.consider relevant information received from the helicopter support unit.
III.Prohibitions
  • A.Members will not engage in a motor vehicle pursuit whenever the most serious offense for which the motor vehicle is wanted is a non-hazardous traffic offense .
  • B.Members will not engage in a motor vehicle pursuit while:
    • 1.there is an arrestee or non-law enforcement personnel in the Department vehicle.
    • 2.operating squadrols, covert vehicles, vans, other truck chassis vehicles (including the Chevrolet Tahoe), motorcycles, and police all-purpose vehicles.
      NOTE:
      In 2007, Chevrolet significantly redesigned the Police Package Chevrolet Tahoe for police work up to and including high speed emergency vehicle operations . Therefore, Chevrolet Tahoes that meet all of the following specifications may be used in motor vehicle pursuits :
      • a.model year 2007 or newer;
      • b.equipped with two-wheel drive only; and
      • c.equipped with the “Police Package.”
    • 3.operating unmarked vehicles, if the most serious offense is a traffic offense .
  • C.The continuation of a motor vehicle pursuit is prohibited whenever:
    • 1.a pursued vehicle or pursuing Department vehicle is involved in any traffic crash in which there is a probability of personal injury.
    • 2.the most serious offense for which the pursued vehicle is wanted is either:
      • a.a theft ; or
      • b.a hazardous traffic violation (other than driving under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs); and
      • c.after the initial observed violation, the pursued vehicle disregards the traffic signals or signs when entering an intersection controlled by traffic signals or stop/yield signs.
    • 3.audio communication between the Office of Emergency Management and Communications (OEMC) and the pursuing vehicle is lost.
      NOTE:
      In this instance, only those units that lose audio communication with OEMC are required to terminate the pursuit. If the OEMC dispatcher loses audio communication with the primary pursuit unit, the dispatcher will, with the approval of the assigned supervisor , assign the secondary pursuit unit as the primary pursuit unit.
    • 4.the primary pursuit unit loses the vehicle being pursued and the secondary pursuit unit cannot reasonably assume the primary pursuit unit's duties.
IV.Authority and Accountability
  • A.The procedures in this directive provide Department members with guidelines to follow when engaged in a motor vehicle pursuit . These procedures also serve as a standard for any administrative review of the judgment exercised by the members involved in a pursuit. All members involved in or supervising a motor vehicle pursuit must be prepared to justify their actions.
  • B.Department members will be cognizant of the fact that motor vehicle pursuits are a serious matter with a potential for death and/or injury to the involved members, persons in the vehicle being pursued, and other persons in the area. Members will also remain aware that they will not be able to apprehend every motorist they have probable cause to arrest.
  • C.Field supervisors, district station supervisors, and watch operations lieutenants, at all times during their tours of duty, will continuously monitor the radio to ensure that all motor vehicle pursuits occurring within their respective districts or involving members under their daily supervision are conducted in accordance with this directive.
  • D.Supervisors of personnel assigned to field duties that use a city-wide frequency will, at all times during their tours of duty, whether they are assigned to either station or field duties, continuously monitor the radio to ensure that all motor vehicle pursuits engaged in by personnel under their supervisory command are conducted in accordance with this directive.
  • E.The assigned supervisor will be responsible for monitoring and managing the pursuit until termination, regardless of what geographic areas outside the district of initiation the pursuit may enter, until or unless relieved by a higher-ranking member.
  • F.If a pursuit is initiated on a city-wide radio frequency, the immediate supervisor of the initiating unit will be assigned to monitor the pursuit. If the immediate supervisor does not respond, any supervisor monitoring that frequency may be assigned to monitor the pursuit, regardless of the supervisor's unit of assignment.
    NOTE:
    If no supervisor can be raised on the city-wide frequency, the OEMC dispatcher will immediately assign a supervisor from the district of initiation and notify that supervisor that no supervisor is monitoring the pursuit on the city-wide frequency.
  • G.If a pursuit continues into another district, the supervisors assigned to that additional district will have authority to terminate the pursuit. However, the original monitoring supervisors assigned to the district in which the pursuit was initiated will retain primary responsibility for monitoring, reviewing, and if necessary, terminating the pursuit.
  • H.Any monitoring supervisor, regardless of unit of assignment, who has additional specific knowledge that would necessitate the termination of a pursuit, has the authority to do so.
    NOTE:
    Once acknowledged by radio call identification number, a nondistrict supervisor not assigned by OEMC who terminates a pursuit will identify himself or herself by rank and name.
  • I.Once a pursuit is terminated, the termination can be overruled only by a member of higher rank than the one ordering the termination. A higher-ranking supervisor that overrules an order to terminate relieves all supervisors of equal or lesser rank from the duties associated with monitoring and supervising the pursuit.
  • J.Any motor vehicle pursuit that is NOT conducted in accordance with this directive will be immediately terminated by the involved Department members or monitoring supervisors.
  • K.The assigned supervisors must acknowledge their approval for continuation of the pursuit or their decision to terminate the pursuit for sworn members below the rank of sergeant.
V.Initiation of a Motor Vehicle Pursuit
  • A.The decision to initiate a pursuit rests with the individual officer when encountering a motor-vehicle operator who refuses to voluntarily stop after having been lawfully directed or signaled to do so. The Department member will only engage in a motor vehicle pursuit when:
    • 1.a motor vehicle pursuit is authorized after applying the balancing test and other restrictions of this directive; and
    • 2.if in a marked vehicle, the emergency-roof lights and siren are activated or if in an unmarked vehicle, the high-beam flashing headlights, siren and light bars (if equipped) are activated;
    • 3.notification has been made to the OEMC dispatcher regarding the facts concerning the pursuit; and
  • B.An active pursuit will involve no more than a primary and one secondary pursuit unit unless otherwise authorized by a supervisor. All other units will remain aware of the direction and progress of the pursuit, but will not actively participate and will NOT respond or engage in pursuit paralleling unless specifically authorized to do so.
    NOTE:
    The supervisor assigned to monitor a pursuit may approve requests for additional units to join a pursuit if it appears that the members engaged in the pursuit may not be able to safely effect the arrest of the suspect(s) or offender(s) being pursued once the pursuit terminates.
  • C.No Department vehicle will be driven through an intersection until the member operating the vehicle has determined that it is reasonable and safe to proceed.
  • D.Members operating unmarked Department vehicles using flashing headlights and siren will only engage in a vehicle pursuit until a marked Department vehicle becomes available to take over the pursuit. The unmarked Department vehicle operator will then withdraw as the primary pursuit unit and, only with the approval of a supervisor assigned to the pursuit, assume the role of secondary pursuit unit.
    • 1.Members, whether operating a marked or unmarked Department vehicle, will apply and adhere to the balancing test and restrictions established under Item II of this directive. Additionally, unmarked vehicles will not initiate or engage in motor vehicle pursuits that involve only traffic offenses .
    • 2.For purposes of this directive, the use of portable oscillating or strobe dashboard or roof lights does not change the designation of an unmarked vehicle to that of a marked vehicle.
  • E.The following activities are prohibited during the course of a motor vehicle pursuit:
    • 1.Boxing in ;
    • 2.Caravanning (unless approved consistent with Item V-B of this directive);
    • 3.Forcing collision ;
    • 4.Overtaking ;
    • 5.Pursuit paralleling (unless approved consistent with Item V-B of this directive);
    • 6.Ramming ;
    • 7.Roadblocks .
VI.Responsibilities and Procedures when a Pursuit is Initiated
  • A.Primary Pursuit Unit
    • 1.The officer initiating the pursuit will:
      • a. in all instances, immediately notify the OEMC dispatcher that a pursuit is in progress and provide the following information:
        • (1)Radio-call identification number;
        • (2)The specific reason for the pursuit, including known laws violated;
        • (3)Location, speed, and direction of travel;
        • (4)Vehicle description, including the state license plate number if known;
        • (5)Number of occupants;
        • (6)Any other relevant information.
      • b.ensure verbal approval from the assigned supervisor has been granted to continue with the pursuit.
    • 2.The initiating unit, when operating a Department vehicle authorized for use as a primary pursuit unit, will serve as the primary pursuit unit unless directed otherwise by a supervisor.
  • B.OEMC Dispatcher
    • 1.For units initiating a pursuit on a zone frequency, the OEMC dispatcher will:
      • a.immediately clear the air of all radio traffic;
      • b.establish the identity of the unit initiating the pursuit;
      • c.establish the locations, direction of travel, speed, license plate number (if available), and the reason for the pursuit.
      • d.immediately assign a district supervisor to monitor and verbally authorize the continuation or termination of the pursuit. Attempts will be made to notify a district supervisor in the following sequence until one is given the responsibility to supervise the pursuit:
        • (1)sector, rapid response, or tactical/gang tactical sergeants;
        • (2)field operations lieutenant or tactical lieutenant;
        • (3)watch operations lieutenant;
        • (4)on-duty executive officer or commander.
          NOTE:
          Any supervisor that fails to respond to a minimum of three separate pages in an estimated one minute period will be redlined. After exhausting the above list without response from any of the supervisors, the dispatcher will terminate the pursuit.
      • e.notify the district station supervisor.
      • f.under the direction of the assigned supervisor , coordinate assistance. The supervisor and primary pursuit unit will be advised of the identity and location of the secondary pursuit unit .
      • g.create an event for the pursuit and record all incoming information on the pursuit and the pursued vehicle.
      • h.provide continual updates on the pursued vehicle's location and maintain radio discipline until the pursuit is concluded or terminated.
      • i.If the pursuit continues into another district, ensure the appropriate zone is notified and monitors the pursuit.
      • j.request air support if available.
    • 2.For units initiating a pursuit on a city-wide frequency, the OEMC dispatcher will follow the procedures outlined in Items VI-B-1 of this directive and:
      • a.assign the unit's immediate supervisor to monitor the pursuit. If the unit's immediate supervisor does not respond, assign any supervisor monitoring that frequency.
      • b.ensure that the pursuit is immediately simulcast to the appropriate zone(s).
      • c.if the pursuit switches to the zone frequency or district units become involved in the pursuit, assign a district supervisor to monitor the pursuit.
      • d.ensure the coordination of information concerning the pursuit between the affected city-wide and the zone frequencies.
  • C.Secondary Pursuit Unit
    • 1.The secondary pursuit unit will maintain a safe distance behind the primary unit and be close enough to render backup assistance if and when required. The secondary pursuit unit will be responsible for keeping the primary pursuit unit in sight, not the vehicle being pursued.
    • 2.If the primary pursuit unit becomes disabled, the secondary pursuit unit will become the primary pursuit unit. The OEMC dispatcher will advise the assigned supervisor of other units available, and the supervisor will designate the new secondary pursuit unit.
  • D.Supervisors Assigned to a Motor Vehicle Pursuit
    • 1.The assigned supervisor must verbally acknowledge his or her approval for continuation of the pursuit or his or her decision to terminate the pursuit for sworn members below the rank of sergeant following the guidelines outlined in this directive.
    • 2. The assigned supervisor and higher-ranking members from the district of initiation, using all available information, will:
      • a.determine if the initiation of the pursuit was authorized and terminate the pursuit if appropriate;
      • b.continuously apply the balancing test and other restrictions of this directive and terminate the pursuit if appropriate;
      • c.determine if additional units are needed.
VII.Inter-Jurisdictional Pursuits
  • A.The continuation of a pursuit into another jurisdiction must be approved by the assigned supervisor.
  • B.The OEMC dispatcher will notify affected law-enforcement agencies when a member continues a pursuit into another jurisdiction. The dispatcher will specify any assistance that will be needed.
  • C.Members will not become involved in a pursuit initiated by another law-enforcement agency unless specifically authorized by a supervisor. The approving supervisor in such instances will assume responsibility as the assigned supervisor for the pursuit relative to the participating Department personnel. All Department members participating in or supervising pursuits initiated by another agency will adhere to all of the procedures outlined in this directive.
VIII.Termination of Motor Vehicle Pursuits
  • A.The decision to terminate a motor vehicle pursuit may be the most reasonable course of action. Involved members and their supervisors must continuously evaluate the nature of the pursuit through application of the balancing test and other restrictions of this directive and make a judgment to terminate the pursuit whenever necessary.
  • B.A pursuit will be immediately terminated whenever:
    • 1.An involved Department member determines that the pursuit does not conform to the balancing test as described in Item II or other restrictions of this directive.
    • 2.an order to terminate the pursuit is given by a supervisor consistent with Item IV of this directive.
  • C.If the termination of a pursuit results in the unsuccessful apprehension of a fleeing vehicle, the operator of the primary pursuit unit will refer to the Department directive entitled "Impoundment of Vehicles for Municipal Code Violations" for possible impoundment of the fleeing vehicle.
IX.Responsibilities and Procedures when a Pursuit is Terminated
Upon a termination order, a voluntary termination, or the apprehension of the offender:
  • A.the OEMC dispatcher will:
    • 1.immediately notify all units of the termination and ensure that all units involved immediately acknowledge the termination order;
    • 2.simulcast the description of any wanted vehicle and/or offenders and ensure that the adjacent radio zones are notified;
    • 3.determine if the assigned supervisor can promptly respond to the scene and, if not, at the request of the assigned supervisor, use GPS to locate the involved vehicle’s position and provide verbal verification that the involved vehicle is at the termination location.
      NOTE:
      If the GPS in the involved vehicle is not functioning, the OEMC dispatcher will inform the assigned supervisor and assign an available supervisor to respond to the termination location.
    • 4.complete an event record of the pursuit.
  • B.the members that were actively engaged in the pursuit will:
    • 1.notify OEMC of their location and remain at that location until directed by the supervisor assigned to the pursuit.
    • 2.submit a Traffic Pursuit Report and any required Traffic Pursuit Supplemental Reports as soon as possible but, in all cases, before their tours of duty are completed.
      • a.The operator of the primary pursuit unit will prepare the Traffic Pursuit Report and obtain a Pursuit Tracking Number from the Major Accident Investigation Unit.
      • b.The drivers of all other involved Department vehicles will complete a Traffic Pursuit Supplemental Report.
      • c.If any involved members are physically unable to obtain the Pursuit Tracking Number, complete the Traffic Pursuit Report, or complete a Traffic Pursuit Supplemental Report, the assigned supervisor will obtain the number and prepare the report(s) with the information then available.
    • 3.ensure the in-car camera video capturing the event is correctly labeled and saved before leaving the termination point or soon as possible before the end of their tour of duty. If the member is physically unable to save the video, it will be the responsibility of the responding supervisor to ensure the video is saved correctly.
  • C.The supervisor assigned to the pursuit will:
    • 1.immediately proceed to the termination point. If another supervisor was assigned to the termination point, relieve that supervisor and take control of the scene, providing guidance and necessary support.
      NOTE:
      If unable to respond to the location of termination and the pursuit was terminated by order or voluntarily by the involved member, the assigned supervisor will request the OEMC dispatcher to verify the involved vehicle’s location using GPS.
    • 2.ensure that medical attention is provided to any person who may be injured.
    • 3.ensure that the driver and all occupants from the pursued vehicle are removed from the scene and transported to a police facility for further investigation and/or processing.
    • 4.order all members not directly involved in the pursuit or any related investigation to return to their normal duties.
    • 5.ensure that the vehicle operators of all Department vehicles participating in the pursuit complete the Traffic Pursuit Report or Traffic Pursuit Supplemental Report as soon as practicable but before his or her tour of duty is completed.
    • 6.complete the "Supervisor" section of the Traffic Pursuit Report and any Traffic Pursuit Supplemental Reports and submit the reports to the lieutenant or a higher ranking member of the district in which the pursuit was initiated before his or her tour of duty is completed.
      NOTE:
      If a district supervisor the rank of lieutenant or above is unavailable, the station supervisor will follow the appropriate procedures established by the Bureau of Patrol to ensure the Traffic Pursuit Report and any Traffic Pursuit Supplemental Reports are completed according to Item IX-E of this directive.
    • 7.ensure all members equipped with an in-car camera system correctly save and label the pursuit event prior to leaving the termination point or as soon as possible before the end of their tour of duty. If the member is physically unable to save the video, it will become the responsibility of the responding supervisor to ensure the video is saved correctly.
  • D.The district station supervisor will ensure the initiating member's field lieutenant or watch operations lieutenant is notified of the pursuit.
  • E.The designated lieutenant or higher-ranking supervisor assigned to review the Traffic Pursuit Report will:
    • 1.complete the appropriate section of the Traffic Pursuit Report and any Traffic Pursuit Supplemental Reports and sign the report acknowledging his or her review of the completed reports.
    • 2.if appropriate, initiate Summary Punishment for any violations of this directive resulting from a motor vehicle pursuit when the pursuit will be reviewed at the district level.
    • 3.not initiate summary punishment for any violations of this directive resulting from a motor vehicle pursuit prior to the review of the pursuit by the Traffic Review Board when the pursuit will be reviewed by the Traffic Review Board.
    • 4.ensure an Office of Emergency Management and Communications Privileged and Confidential Media/Data Request (FORM: OEMC-109) is completed and:
      • a.indicate in the Remarks/Information section of the request that the audio tape is to be forwarded to the Commanding Officer, Traffic Safety and Training Unit, Unit 154; and
      • b.a copy of the request is attached to the original traffic pursuit report package.
    • 5.ensure a Digitally Recorded Data Viewing/Hold/Duplication Request In-Car Video Systems Chicago Police Department form (CPD-65.224) is completed for a duplication request.
      • a.Indicate in the additional remarks and information section of the request that the video is forwarded to the Traffic Administration, Unit 145 and
      • b.attach a copy of the request to the original traffic pursuit report package.
    • 6.if the vehicle involved in the pursuit and/or vehicle crash is towed from the scene due to an accident or other circumstances, ensure:
      • a.a help desk ticket is requested and
      • b.CPIC is notified to request an emergency on-site retrieval consistent with procedures delineated in the directive entitled "In-Car Video Systems" to preserve for evidence any recordings of the pursuit and/or Department crash event.
        NOTE:
        When requesting the retrieval relay the vehicle was towed and include the vehicle and event number.
    • 7.forward the completed Traffic Pursuit Report, Traffic Pursuit Supplemental Report(s), event record, OEMC Media/Data Request, and a copy of all other related documents to his or her district commander before the end of his or her tour of duty.
  • F.Any supervisor who becomes aware of a violation of Department policy or procedures requiring a complaint register investigation will initiate the investigation in accordance with the Department directive entitled "Complaint and Disciplinary Procedures."
X.Exempt Level Responsibilities
  • A.The district commander of the district in which the pursuit was initiated will:
    • 1.review and sign the Traffic Pursuit Report and any Traffic Pursuit Supplemental Reports acknowledging his or her review of the report.
    • 2.if appropriate, initiate Summary Punishment for any violations of this directive resulting from a motor vehicle pursuit when the pursuit will be reviewed at the district level.
    • 3.not initiate summary punishment for any violations of this directive resulting from a motor vehicle pursuit prior to the review of the pursuit by the Traffic Review Board when the motor vehicle pursuit will be reviewed by the Traffic Review Board.
    • 4.distribute the report and all attachments no later than 72 hours after the pursuit, as follows:
      • a.The original to the initiating member's exempt commanding officer, if applicable.
        NOTE:
        If the district commander of the district in which the pursuit was initiated is also the initiating member's exempt commanding officer, the original will be forwarded to the Commanding Officer, Traffic Safety and Training Unit, consistent with Item X-B-3.
      • b.A copy to the exempt commanding member next in the chain of command.
      • c.A copy to be retained in the unit files in accordance with existing records-retention requirements.
  • B.The exempt commanding member of the unit of the initiating member will:
    • 1.review and sign the Traffic Pursuit Report and any Traffic Pursuit Supplemental Reports acknowledging his or her review of the completed report.
    • 2.if appropriate, initiate Summary Punishment for any violations of this directive resulting from a motor vehicle pursuit when the pursuit will be reviewed at the district level.
    • 3.not initiate summary punishment for any violations of this directive resulting from a motor vehicle pursuit prior to the review of the pursuit by the Traffic Review Board when the pursuit will be reviewed by the Traffic Review Board.
    • 4.distribute the report and all attachments no later than 72 hours after receipt, as follows:
      • a.The original to the Commanding Officer, Traffic Section;
      • b.A copy to the exempt commanding member next in the chain of command; and
      • c.A copy to be retained in the unit files in accordance with existing records-retention requirements.
  • C.The Commanding Officer of the Major Accident Unit will ensure:
    • 1.a ledger of Pursuit Tracking Numbers is maintained; and
    • 2.Pursuit Tracking Numbers are issued on a 24-hour basis as requested by Department members.
(Items indicated by italics/double underline have been added or revised)
John J. Escalante
Interim Superintendent of Police
T15-158 CMF
GLOSSARY TERMS:
1. -
A violation as defined in the Illinois Vehicle Code or the Chicago Municipal Code involving equipment, licensing, or regulatory violations.
2. -
Any person who by virtue of his or her office is vested by law with a duty to maintain public order or to make arrests for offenses, whether that duty extends to all offenses or is limited to specific offenses, regardless of the employing agency.
3. -
The authorized use of a Department vehicle beyond the normal traffic regulations undertaken consistent with the exemptions provided under 625 ILCS 5/11-205 of the Illinois Motor Vehicle Code.
4. -
  • An active attempt by a sworn member operating an authorized emergency vehicle to apprehend any driver or operator of a motor vehicle who, having been given a visual and audible signal by the officer directing such driver or operator to bring his or her vehicle to a stop, fails or refuses to obey such direction, increases or maintains his or her speed, extinguishes his or her lights, or otherwise flees or attempts to elude the officer.
    NOTE:
    A routine traffic stop or other instance in which an officer activates his or her emergency lights and/or siren and the citizen/vehicle operator complies by coming to a stop in a reasonably short distance will NOT be considered a motor vehicle pursuit.
5. -
A violation as defined in the Illinois Vehicle Code or Title 9 of the Chicago Municipal Code.
6. -
Any violation of any subsection of 625 ILCS 5/4, including Possession of a Stolen Motor Vehicle, or 720 ILCS 5/16.
7. -
A violation as defined in the Illinois Vehicle Code or the Chicago Municipal Code involving the improper maneuvering or control of the vehicle that may create a hazard to other persons or property and does not meet the criteria for a nonhazardous moving violation as defined in this directive.
8. -
Any supervisor assigned and acknowledged by the Office of Emergency Management Communications to monitor a vehicle pursuit.
9. -
Any police vehicle which becomes involved as a backup to the primary pursuit unit.
10. -
The deliberate tactic of a vehicle operator to mirror on adjacent streets the direction and speed of vehicles actively involved in an authorized pursuit.
11. -
A deliberate tactic by two or more police vehicles to force a pursued vehicle in a specific direction or to force a pursued vehicle to stop or reduce speed by the maneuvering of police vehicles in front of, behind, or beside a pursued vehicle.
12. -
The following and direct participation in a pursuit by more than two police vehicles.
13. -
A deliberate tactic by a police vehicle operator to cause a pursued vehicle to crash into parked vehicles or fixed objects.
14. -
The passing of a pursued vehicle by a police officer operating an authorized emergency vehicle.
15. -
The deliberate tactic by one or more police vehicles to forcibly strike, while attempting to stop, a pursued vehicle.
16. -
Any method, restriction, or obstruction used or intended for the purpose of preventing passage of a motor vehicle.
17. -
The first police vehicle immediately behind the vehicle being pursued.